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21 Agustus 2015 13:13 WIB
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Penulis : Drs. H. Rois Mahfud, M. Pd

Islamic religion (Agama Islam) is a series of two words that have different meanings, "religion" and “Islam". The two different words is a coherent whole describe specific meaning. The main purpose of this chapter is to make the description that will explain the meaning of Islam in the first explanation of the meaning of each word of the Islamic religion.

1.1. The meaning of Religion (Agama)

Religion is not only as one of trust and recognition of the Lord, and their rituals that more focused on human relations as an individual to his Lord, but also covers the whole system of human life.

According  to the terms of the Qur'an the word "religion" is called ‘Al-Din’. In Indonesian word it is called ‘agama’. The fraction of the word "A" means ‘no’ and "gama" means ‘chaotic’. So ‘agama’ means no mess.

The definition above implies that religion as a rule providing clues for the human life, orderly, safely and avoiding chaos that leads to anarchy. Religion is the guide of human life how to lead a life that is not only based on the tastes and biases of individual subjectivity but it is the regulation for humans as well.

The term of religion is synonymous with ‘al din’. This notion applies to all religions, whether Islam or the other religion as explained by Endang Saifuddin Anshori in his book titled Fundamentals Thought About Islam. He writes: It called ‘al-din’ not only Islam, but also the others. People argue that al-din was broader than religion, or that al-din was not the same as religion, it can not be justified in terms of scientific and judging from diniyah terms. The truth of Islamic religion is much broader than other religions"(Anshori; 15: 1969).

In the Qur'an ‘al din’ has the connotative meaning; 1) al-Jaza/ retaliation; 2) al-ibadah/ worship or devotion; 3) at-thaat/ obedience or allegiance; 4) al-qanun as samawi/ sky laws/ regulations of God; 5) al-qanun aldunya/ laws of earth / human regulations; 6) al-Tawheed wal istislam/ monotheism or surrender; 7) an-nashihah/ counsel; 8) al-muhasabah/ calculation, accurate or introspection, and; 9) al-akhlaqul fadhilah/ good character.

Several meanings above shows that al-din (religion) has the broader scope of meanings. Al din has unlimited scope, it covers the entire attitude and behavior as well as social life of all aspects of human life, including:

a. Teaches reprisals to any humans deeds during their life.

b.  Establishes the obligation to devote themselves to God.

c.  As the rules in social life as a human caliphate tasks to each other.

d.  Teaches human in order to correct himself.

e.  The basic of forming the good character.


1.2. The meaning of Islam


The word Islam is derived from Arabic word, assalamu, assalamatu which means clean and safe from birth defects and mental. Islam means holy, clean, flawless. Islam means "surrender something". Islam is a matter of giving one's soul to God, the problem of entrusting one's soul to God (Arkoun, 1997: 17).

Another meaning of the word Islam is (al salmu / peace) and security. This means that Islam is a religion teaching its adherents. The Moslims spread the seeds of peace, safety and security for themselves, fellows (Muslims and non-Muslims) and to the surrounding environment (rahmatan lil 'alamin) (Muhammad, 2007 : 1).

Peace, security and safety can only be obtained by every Moslims who obey and practice the rules, orders and prohibitions of Allah that described in the source of the Islamic teachings, the book of Allah (the Qur'an) and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad.

Ahmad Abdullah Almasdoosi (1962) expressed Islam as a rule of life that was revealed to mankind since humans deployment to the earth, and built up in final form and perfect in the holy Qur'an that Allah revealed to His Prophet, Muhammad ibn Abdullah, a rule of life that includes a clear and complete guidance regarding aspects of human life, both spiritual and material.

From the above assertion can be understood that Islam is a religion of Allah revealed to mankind through His prophet Muhammad, contains the laws governing the relationship triangles between men and God (vertical relation), human relationships with fellow of human beings (horizontal relation) and the relationships of humans and the environment of the universe.

1.3. Islam as a guide of Life

God created human beings in this world serves as His vicegerent on earth prosperity, empowering the universe, build civilizations, order and tranquility of life. This is confirmed in Qur’an (Surah Al Baqarah/2: 30).

  Behold, Thy Lord said to the angels:“ I will create A vicegerent on earth.” They said: “Wilt Thou place therein one who will make Mischief therein and shed blood? Whilst we do celebrate Thy praises And glorify Thy holy (name)?”He said: “I know what ye know not.”

The Caliphate functions must be implemented by every human being appropriately in order to enforce devotion to God (worship) as the sole task of human life. Allah said in Qur’an (Surah Az Zariyat: 56).

I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me.

Men carries out the functions and duties of good and proper life for God Almighty. They have lowered the laws, rules, and provisions that Islam is from the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad. Based on the teachings of Islam, human can perform the functions and duties of devotion to God as well as possible (Noor: 94: 1983).

Islam is a religion that has a sublime teachings. Islamic teachings known and practiced by every person who believes  it, then security and peace can be obtained during the life. Islam is a religion that containing the complete (holistic), and comprehensive teachings.

Islamic religion has a complete doctrine, perfect for his teachings for all dimensions of human life, the spiritual dimension that ordinances of worship (human relationship with God), the social, economic, education and other dimensions.

In the Quran surah Al Maidah [5]: 3 found confirmation of the completeness  of Islam.

“This day have I perfected your religion For you, completed My favour upon you, And have chosen for you Islam as your religion.”

It is clear that Islam is the perfect religion, it covers all aspects of life, and has outlines as a whole methods of life.

Allah revealed the Holy Qur'an as a guide for human life. In the holly book is mentioned several times of ‘Islam’ as the name of religion that regulates all matters and aspects of life. In regarding to explicit Michael F. Taylor (2003), as it is cited by Muhammad (2007: 12) and commented below:

Islam is a comprehensive way of life, religion and secular; it is a set of beliefs and a way of worship; it is a vast and integrated system of law; it is a culture and civilization; it is an economic and commercial system norm; it is a polity and a method of governance; it is a society and family conduct; it is prescribes for inheritance and divorce, dress and etiquette, food and personal hygiene. It is a spiritual and human totality; this worldly and other-worldly.

In addition it should receive affirmation that Islam is not a man-made method that contain elements of right and wrong. Some people assumption that Islam as a doctrine of the creativity of Muhammad’s thought, as it is expressed by HAR Gibb, who calls Islam as a Mohammadanism, which means Islam is a religion created by Muhammad (Rahardjo, 1996: 132) it is unacceptable to the adherents of Islam (Muslims). This refusal has no rational justification and normative justification in the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad.

Islam is a way of life that leads a person who follow His directions properly to achieve ultimate happiness, serenity and tranquility of living in the world and get enjoyment in the afterlife, in heaven.



Islam as a religion and the object of academic study has wide coverage and  broad scope. Islam has a number of inter-related scope, the scope of belief (faith), the scope of the norm (shari'a), Relation and behavior (morals). The following discussion provides an elaboration about the three spheres of Islam.

2.1. Aqidah/ Tauheed

Human beings believe that Allah is the Creator and Ruler of the universe. Bonding, awareness and confidence to the Lord that this one is the core of the faith.

Aqidah is commonly understood as a bond, knot, strong and robust treaty. Bond refers to the basic meaning of that since humans’ loins having tied up with a strong agreement to accept and acknowledge the existence of God which regulates and controls his temper, ie Allah. Besides, belief is also contained coverage all the transcendental, like angels, heaven, hell, and so on.

Moslems acknowledge that Allah is their Creator, Cherisher, and Sustainer: therefore they acknowledge their duty to Him: when they testify concerning themselves, the obligation is assumed by them; they follow from their core when it is pure and uncorrupted.  

This agreement also indicates the nature of divinity of men. In a tone that is dialogical, the Qur'an describes the bond, the handover recognition between God and men. On the one hand, God asked man's testimony and recognition of the existence of Him as the only God for humans. Humans without coercion from anyone accept and believe in God. "Am I not your Lord, they (men) answered, yes we testify that You are our God". (Surah Al A’raf:172)

Human acceptance of the existence of God as the only God who is worshiped and Truth. It is closely related to the meaning of the term of the faith. Experts say that faith truths can be accepted easily by humans because it is the basic of rationality and normative, reason and revelation.

Admitting the truth was accepted because it has consequences and concessions can bring peace of soul for those who believe. The consequence is throw away things that are contrary to what is believed in. While the concession of conviction it is the emergence of security, peace (salam) and sobriety (tathma'inal qalb).

Aqidah includes creed all the words of God contained in verse of Qauliyah, Kauniyah and Nafsiyah is the evidence of the existence, Greatness and His unity. The core is the belief of monotheism. Tawheed means the basic of trust that animates human beings and all human activities carried out solely dedicated to God, free from all forms of shirk (associating partners in Allah).

2.1.1. The Scope of Aqidah

Aqidah as an object of academic study covers some discussion agenda, namely the discussions related to several aspects such as the divine aspect (divinity), nubuwah and ruhaniyah arkanul faith (faith harmony).

First, the discussion relating to the divine aspect includes everything that relates to God, as a manifestation of God, God's qualities, His deeds and His names.

Second, discussion of nubuwah, prophetic with regard to the Prophet and Messenger, Allah's book is revealed through the prophet and messenger of God.

Third, aspects of ruhaniyah is talk about everything transcendental or metaphysical like spirit, angels, jinn, demons and devils. In addition to these three aspects, the fourth aspect of the scope of the assessment in the aqidah is sam'iyah that discuss about something that postulates Naqli form of the Qur'an and Hadits, Barzakh, Hereafter, Doom and Grave.

Islamic faith contains teachings about what should be believed by every Moslim. Islam is sourced to the trust and faith in God, then belief is a belief system that binds people to Islam. A man called Moslem when in full awareness and sincerity are willing to be bound by the belief system of Islam and appeared in everyday life. Islamic belief system or creed is built on the Six Basic of Faith, commonly called Tenets that includes belief in Allah, the angels, Scriptures, the Apostles, the Day of Judgment and His Qadha and Qadar.

Faith (Iman) is generally understood as a justified belief in the heart, swore with oral and proved by deeds that is based on sincere intention and always follow the instructions of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad.

There are a number of words of faith in the Quran Surah Al-Baqarah ;165.


“…But those of Faith are Overflowing in their love For Allah….”

Based on this verse can be seen that faith is synonymous with (asyaddu hubbal lillah), love is very deep. Faith is an attitude or behavior of mental state showed a trend or extraordinary faith towards God. People who believe in God are those who are willing to sacrifice his body and soul to realize the hope or the will of God.

1. Believe in God


The essence of faith is the recognition of the Oneness of God (tawhid). Tawhid means the conviction of the truth of the One God, not associating it with anything.

Although humans have the nature of divinity, believing that God is One, but in the struggle of human life with the reality that there is no divine nature becomes blurred. It is characterized by the presence of some people who believe the trees, large rocks have sacred, able to bring safety, protecting them from threats and dangers. So that delicate creature in the trees that provide protection to them, then they make offerings. Such belief is not just found in primitive societies, but also still often found in the life of modern society.

It is certain that they will not find the point of ultimate truth, they met various of God, sometimes he even considers himself to be God. Whereas in many verses, Allah has given the affirmation of the Oneness of God as Allah said in surah Thaha: 14 and Surah al-Ikhlas: 1-4.

Surely I am Allah, there is no god (the right) but Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance.

The Muslims understand aqidah in order to admit that God has no father nor mother, no sons nor daughters. He has not fathered anyone nor was He fathered. None equal to Him. He is God of all mankind, not of a special tribe or race. God is High and Supreme but He is very near to the pious thoughtful believers; He answers their prayers and helps them. He loves the people who love Him and forgives their sins. He gives them peace, happiness, knowledge and success. God is the Loving and the Provider, the Generous and the Benevolent, the Rich and the Independent, the Forgiving and the Clement, the Patient and the Appreciative, the Unique and the Protector, the Judge and the Peace. God's attributes are mentioned in the Quran.

God created men and all nature.  The men understand how to be good Moslem.  They perform their duties  and conscience to be good and righteous, the feelings and sentiments to be kind and humane. They try to count His favours upon them, but they cannot, because God’s great favours are countless. In return for all and mercy, God does not need anything from them, because He is Needless and Independent. God asks them to know Him, to love Him and to enforce His Law for their own benefit and their own good for their life in this earth and the Hereafter.

Say: "He is Allah, The One and Only. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute, He begetteth Nor is He begotten, And there is none Like unto Him."

Faith (Tauhid) covers a wide range: the Essence of monotheism, tawhid Af'al, the unity of worship, a form of monotheism.

There are several kinds of Tawhid ;

First, Tawhid Dzat (Essence) means to believe in Allah, the One and Only possessed by His own, not shared by His creation. The Essence of God cannot be sensed by anyone, humans do not have the ability, not given knowledge of the Essence of God, and men are recommended only to think of God's creation and not think of the One God as stated in a hadits of the Prophet Muhammad.

Second, Tawhid Sifat (properties) it is one's belief that God Almighty can notbe likened to anything. All God's creatures will not likely resemble the nature of Allah (QS. Ash Sura: 11).

Third, Tawhid Wujud (existence) that one's belief in the existence of God. He was without requiring the hold. He is immortal, the beginning and end of everything (Surah Al Hadid: 3).

Fourth, Tawhid Af'’al (Creator) is believed that the universe and everything in it is God's creation, as well as its maintenance. He is the master of nature. Everything that happens in this world does not appear or happen by itself but on the will and permission of God.

Fifth, Tawhid Ibadah (Worship) the unity of worship, namely the belief that a person is worthy of worship no other God. Worshiping Allah means associating God. And who ascribed partners to Allah both by word and deed as well as in the live so he called polytheists, those who do shirk, associating partners with God. (al Mu’minun: 32).

Sixth, Tawheed Qashdi believe wholeheartedly that God became the focus of all activities undertaken. All activities carried out by someone during his intention addressed to God. In everyday life, the five daily Muslim prayers pledged that indeed, worship, life and death is dedicated to Allah only (QS. Al An'am: 162).

Seventh, Tawhid Tasyrik namely the belief that God created all laws that can not be compared to the man-made laws. This perfect laws should be the basic for humans in determining and deciding a case. Instead, whoever is not set and decide a case based on the laws of Allah, he indeed is the wicked (QS. Al Maidah: 47).


2. Believe in Angels

Angels are creatures of God that comes from the light, it can not be seen or sensed by the human, supernatural beings. Yet he remained there and execute tasks given by God. Angels are creatures of God who never disobey God. In essence, this supernatural creature has a characteristic, namely; a) fear and obey God; b) never sinner to Him (QS At-Tahrim: 6); and c) never overbearing, but always glorify God. (QS. An-Nahl: 2).

Angels were given special tasks in accordance parts respectively. There is an angel whose job is only to bow down to God continually, there are also among those who convey the revelation of God as the angel Gabriel, or also called the Purest Spirit/Ruhul Amin, an angel who maintain and make friends who believe it. (Surat al Anfal: 9 ). Some of us were tasked with monitoring human attitudes and good and bad actions (QS. Al Infithar: 10-12), and various other tasks that have been assigned to each angel.

The task of the angels, namely; 1) Gabriel, lowers revelation; 2) Michael, dividing sustenance; 3) Raqib, noting every good deed; 4) Atid, noting evil deeds; 5) Malakul Maut (Izrail is not mentioned in the Quran and no in Hadits), Killing; 6) Munkar, asking for charity during the life in the world; 7) Nakir, checking charitable; 8) Israfil, blowing the trumpet; 9) Malik, keeping the Hell; 10) Ridwan, Keeping the heaven.

As for other general tasks, namely: lowering inspiration; affirming the hearts of the believers; praying for the Muslims; guarding the believers; implementing the law of God; asking forgiveness for man; reading blessings on the Prophet; greeting to the members of Paradise. They are purely spiritual and splendid beings created by God. They require no food or drink or sleep. They have no physical desires nor material needs.

Angels spend their time in the service of God. Each charged with a certain duty. Angels cannot be seen by the naked eyes.

3. Believe in the Books of Allah

In addition to believing in God, believers are also obliged to believe in the scriptures of God because faith and believe in His Messenger, into a unified whole. Allah sent His books to be used as a human guidelines  in organizing and arranging their lives in order to achieve the pleasure of God as the peak of the real purpose of life. Today the Quran is the only authentic and complete book of God. No scholar has questioned the fact that the Quran today is the same as it was more than 1500 years ago. Muslims till today memorize the Quran word by word as a whole or in part. God who revealed the Quran is protecting it from being lost, corrupted, or concealed.


4. Believe in the Prophet of God


The fourth faith is to believe in the Messenger of God. Apostle means messenger implies privileged human beings who received revelation from God and have a duty to convey the content of revelation for the people.

All messengers were mortals, human beings, endowed with Divine revelations and appointed by God to teach mankind. The Holy Qur’an mentions the names of 25 messengers and prophets and states that there are others. These include Noah, Abrahim, Ismael, Isa, Moses, and Muhammad. Their message is the same and Islam came from One Source; God.

The Messengers sent by God have different shari'ah, but the coming of their prophetic mission is the same, namely upholding faith that The Oneness of God. Previous prophets and apostles have guided their people, they provide spiritual guidance the people that have limited time and place. This situation is different from the last prophet, Muhammad. He came to enhance the previous apostles and apply to all human beings in this universe.



5. Believe in the Day of Judgment.


Judgment Day is also called the Yaumul Qiyamah, the end of the day, Yaumul Ba'ath (the resurrection) Yaumul reckoning (the day of reckoning), Yaumul zaja'i (Day of Judgment), namely retaliation for all human deeds during the life of the world. In the Qur'an there are several verses that refer to the Day of Judgment as a letter al Qashas: 88; QS. Thaha: 15; QS. al Hajj: 1-2; QS. al-Zumar: 68; QS. Al Baqarah: 28.

This world as we know it will come to an end and the dead will rise to stand for their final and fair trial. Everything we do, say, make, intend and think are accounted for and kept in accurate records. They are brought up on the day of Judgment. People with good records will be generously rewarded and warmly welcomed to God's Heaven. People with bad records will be fairly punished and cast into Hell.

The real nature of Heaven and Hell are known to God only, but they are described by God in man's familiar terms in the Quran. If some good deeds are seen not to get full appreciation and credit in this life, they will receive full compensation and be widely acknowledged on the Day of Judgment. If some people who commit sins, neglect God and indulge in immoral activities seem superficially successful and prosperous in this life, absolute justice will be done to them on the Day of Judgment. The time of the Day of Judgment is only known to God and God alone.

Judgment Day marks the final chapter of the history of human life in the world. The Hour there is no doubt even the process is very clear. Man dies in various forms of age caused by the illness, as a result of natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, earthquakes, explosions of gas as Lapindo mud in Surabaya, flooding, poor nutrition. hunger, and at the hands of sadistic humans, such as murder accompanied by mutilation which claimed many victims, war using the super-sophisticated technology weapons that ripped the children and other people.

All of the events mentioned above for most human beings seen and understood as the event is without associated with a process of human life that is getting close to the point of its orbit. Humans did not even realize when objects also undergoing rapid change in accordance with the properties available to him, which marks the approach of the end of the life. People who are constantly aware of the symptoms that he would live as a signal of the almighty Creator that man-made and all that is in the heavens and on earth will be destroyed, the eternal is only Allah ( al Qashas: 88).

    On the day of Judgment also will account for all human deeds in the world. For those who believe and do righteous will experience the joys of heaven even dwell therein. Conversely those who violate God and implement the ban depicted a painful punishment (hell).

For those who believe the end of the day this will make it as a guide to prepare themselves to deal with doing things that are good, considering the consequences caused by his actions before he take the option of doing things. In other words, faith in the Day of Judgment will bear good impact for someone in designing future life better.


6. Believe in Qadha and Qadar

"Qadaa" and "Qadar" means the Timeless Knowledge of God and His power to plan and execute His plans. God is not indifferent to this world nor is He neutral to it.  God is Wise, Just and Loving and whatever He does must have a good motive, although we may fail sometimes to understand it fully.

Moslems have strong faith in God and accept whatever He does because their knowledge is limited and thinking is based on individual consideration, whereas His knowledge is limitless and He plans on a universal basis. Man think, plan, and make sound choices, but if things do not happen the way they wants, they should not lose faith and surrender themselves to mental strains or shattering worries.

In Islamic education textbooks issued by the Director General of Islamic Education Institutions Ar Raghib cited the opinion that the Qadar is to determine the limit (size) of a design, such as large and age of the universe, the length of day and night, anatomy and physiology of vegetable and animal creatures , etc. while qadha is to establish the design. Or simply qahda is the ordinance of God, that has been set (but unknown), was Qadar is the decision of God who has proven (known to have occurred) (p. 116).

Believe in the Qadar and qadha provide an understanding that we must believe in God's wisdom and omnipotence as the only One who has the sole authority in lowering and specify any conditions for the creature creation. Humans are given the ability (qudrat) and autonomy to determine their own fate with effort  and pray to God.

Humans have initiative, autonomy to determine and choose the path of good or bad. Man is tested through two entry points are assumed position as caliph and the mandate of God. The second point is the challenge was filed by God to men, and men is ready to realize these challenges in the form of action. To carry out these two things human beings need a complete form of the limbs (qalb), Iradat (option), masyi'ah (decision), kudrah (power) and ability. With autonomy or its halatul endeavor, humans may choose to receive revelation and consideration of common sense (good) or choose seduction lusts (evil).

2.2.  SYARI'AH

2.2.1. Understanding Shari'ah

Shari'ah means the path to where irrigation or roads be followed or a chapter and then the water in the river (Al Mannar VI: 413, under the Shah, 1992, 11). In some verses of the Quran the word shari'ah found, in Surah al Maidah [5]: 48; Ash-Shura [26]: 13 and al Jatsiyah [45]: 18), which implies a clear path that leads to victory, which is set for a human religion. For anyone who follows a clear path (religion of) Allah, he will arrive at the water so that the soul be clean.

Shari'ah is God's rules are used as a reference by men in organizing and arranging their life both in relation to the relationship between man and God, the relationship between humans human beings, and human relationship with the natural surroundings.

Shari'ah is not only a concrete positive law, but also a set of values ​​and a framework for the religious life of Muslims. While jurisprudence include shari'ah laws specifically, but the Shari'ah itself also includes ethical teachings and spiritual law that is not specifically even though the law was never separated from moral in Islam (Nasr, 2003: 187).

Overall ethics of Islam, at the level of individual and social, connected with the shari'ah, while the purification of the soul and absorption in the true meaning of shari'ah is for the spiritual path or ways, where it should always be based on a formal practice of the law of God.

2.2.2. The scope of Shariah

The scope of the Shari'ah can generally be categorized into two aspects, namely the religious aspect and the aspect muamalah (human relationship).

 The Scope of Worship

Worship is the human offerings to God as a form of servitude to Allah. Therefore, worship meant devoting themselves to God. Glance noted previously that people who believe in God the beating of breath and steps as well as all the activities done intended as a form of dedication to God. so any action undertaken during the good Muslims and intended only for Allah, then such actions valuable worship Allah.

Worship in Islam broadly divided into two types, namely worship mahdah (special worship), and worship Ghair mahdah (public worship). Here are three types of special worship and a lesson that includes ablution (wudhu), praying, fasting, zakat and pilgrimage (hajj).


A necessary condition that must be met somebody in the implementation of worship such as prayer, tawaf and so is the purification or commonly referred to thaharah. Holy of dirt or filth and impurity. Pure from impure means to eliminate the odious both inherent in the body, clothing, and a place with unclean busting ingredients such as water, soil, rocks, leaves and paper or other materials that are  allowed.

While the purification of impurity means to eliminate the small impurity by way of ablution and eliminate major impurity with janabat bath (bath required for intercourse, out semen, finished menstruation or parturition). Ablution and shower can be replaced with the tayammum, if under certain circumstances we did not get water because of a trip or because of certain impediments, such as pain. The command removes a small impurity in a way that begins with ablution give basmalah, washing face, two hands up to the elbows, wiping the entire head and washed two feet to the ankles. can be found in the affirmation of God in His Word (QS.AI-Maidah, 5: 6) While bathing janabat declared valid if the water flow evenly throughout the body.

O ye who believe, if you want to do the prayers, then wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and rub your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles, and if you have sexual intercourse then wash, and if you are sick [403] or in traveling or returning from the waste water (toilet) or touch the [404] woman, then you do not get water, then take tayammum with good soil (net); rub your face and hands with the land. God does not want to complicate you, but he wanted to cleanse you and perfected His favor, that you should be grateful.

The Wisdom of Thaharah (character building)

1.  Familiarize clean living that is a prerequisite for a healthy life

2.  The ablution that it contains obligations to wash the sin.

3. Tayamum uses ground signaled for a humble man, not arrogant.


Prayer (salat) is the utterances and movements starting from takbiratul ihram and ends by saying greetings with the terms and certain movements. Prayer provisions set out in Islamic law based on the Quran and the Prophet's example contained in the hadits. Therefore, prayer is considered valid if done in accordance with the example of the Prophet Muhammad taught.

Salat is the subject of worship in Islam even the pillar of religion (imad addin). Size is determined by prayer religious person, meaning that if he uphold the prayer then he has established his religion. Conversely, if he left the prayer then he has undermined his religion. Prayers for every Muslim is an obligation that never cease under any circumstances, all healthy minds. In contrast to  women that prayer is not allowed at certain times such as when they're menstruating and postpartum until it holy.

People who are on a long journey-waivers granted waivers to pray and Gathering (qashar) pray. Gathering Salat is praying the midday gathering with a prayer 'Ashr or Maghrib prayer with evening prayer. If the Ashr prayer performed at midday, or evening prayers together with the Maghrib prayer and performed at the time of Maghrib prayer called taqdim. When the midday prayer together with the Asr prayer and performed at the time of Asr and Isha prayers together with Maghrib and Isya performed at the time of prayer called ta'khir.

Qashar prayers are prayers that summarizes the four cycles into two cycles, namely prayers midday, Asr and Isha. Salat done simultaneously with condensing so prayers were four cycles condensed into a two-two cycles. Prayers can not be gathered is the morning prayer, while that can not be condensed  Maghrib and Fajr prayers.

In addition to the obligatory prayers as we mentioned above, there are also prayers sunnat, that prayer is recommended to be done. Salat circumcision consists of several kinds, among others, first, prayer sunnat rawatib (sunnat prayers performed before or after the obligatory prayers) well that circumcision muakkad and non muakkad.

Second, circumcision evening prayer, that prayer tahajud, istikharah prayer, prayer witir and so on. Third, pray circumcision performed on certain days, ie Eid prayer and Eid al-Adha, fourth, pray circumcision is performed only in Ramadan alone, ie tarawih prayer, and the fifth, prayer circumcision performed on certain events, such as prayer eclipse (moon and sun) and prayer istisqa (ask for rain).

Salat implies personal coaching, which can avoid sin and misguidance. People who perform the prayer life will be controlled. Every prayer time, a Muslim exposes himself to God, asking for His forgiveness and guidance through prayer readings were saying. After the prayers he can get back in their routine activities with soul is clean, new spirit and fresh hopes. Personal controlled in such a way, at least five times a day and night, will tend to behave better, to avoid sin. Therefore, people who pray fervently properly and will be protected from sin as Allah said: (QS.AI-Ankabut, 29:45)


Fasting is to resist eating and drinking and all that canceled since dawn to sunset. No fasting is required legal and some are sunnat. As for the obligatory fasting is fasting for the whole month during Ramadan and fasting nadzar (planning fasting, for example: I intend be fast if they pass the test. If you pass, rnaka he shall fast). Ramadan fasting obligation based on the word of God: (QS.AI-Baqarah, 2: 183)

Fasting legal circumcision is circumcision, namely fasting on Mondays and Thursdays, alternate-day fasting, fasting six days in Shawwal and so on. Fasting including special worship, because it is determined by the rules of procedures of Islamic law. Fasting basically serves to control the passions in everyone so it can be controlled and focused on things that are positive.

The purpose of fasting is to achieve the degree of piety, namely the circumstances in which a Muslim is submissive and obedient to the commands of Allah and avoid His prohibitions. In the fasting person requires so hungry and sick beliefs can bear. Therefore, it is natural that such a person is considered to have one of the criteria cautious.

The Wisdom of Fasting

Fasting is a ritual of worship have a high significance. It is a process of intensive education and training, to test the power of faith, and at the same time control the passions. This ritual worship can generate positive attitudes are revealed in everyday life, such as concern for the poor. He felt how hunger and thirst is not eating and drinking, while many people are hungry and thirsty of being poor.

Fasting educate people disciplined with time. Times of fasting predetermined illustrates how necessary time and also increased the practice of religion. Fasting trains restrain and refrain from desires and impulses to commit a prohibited act of God. Impulses that will always come in every person. Someone carried away or not with the urge to rely on defense and self-control. By fasting, a believer trained to control and restrain impulses of lust before, so it is not easily washed away and dragged to the flow of sin that harm themselves.


Zakat is to give property if it has reached the calculation (nisab) and limitation of time (haul) to the people who deserve it with certain conditions. Nisab is a certain size of property owned by the obligatory zakat issued. While the haul is running less than one year. The type of goods obligatory Zakat is the result of agriculture, plantation, animal husbandry, trade, as well as other property which include the category of zakat mal. Islamic charity as a liability based on the word of God: (QS.At-Tawbah, 9: 103)

For those who took it (muzakki), zakat has a function as a command execution and worship to God and is a way of cleansing and purification of its treasures. Everything is eaten and used is a treasure that has been cleared of the rights of others who are attached to the property. Thus, he will be spared from eating treasure that is not his right.

Treasures collected from the muzakki given to people who are entitled to receive zakat (mustahik), the indigent, poor, 'Amilin, converts, slaves, gharim, fi Sabilillah, ibn sabil (QS. At-Tauba, 9:60)

Wisdom and the benefits of Zakat

 Zakat is worship in the area of treasure and its benefits of such a large and noble, both with regard to those who tithe (muzakki), the recipient (mustahik), issued zakat treasure, and for, the community overall. Wisdom and benefits include summed as follows: first, mediation in increasing faith in God Almighty, foster a sense of humanity, impoverish miserly, greedy and materialistic, cultivate peace of life, clean up and develop the properties.

Second, because the right mustahik, then zakat serves to help, assist and nurture them, especially the poor, toward a better life and a more prosperous, so that they can meet their needs with a decent, can worship Allah, 'to avoid a hazard infidelity, while eliminating the nature, envy, jealousy and envy that could lead to anarchism and social unrest as well as the nature and the curmudgeonly miser. In Surah an-Nisa ': 37 says:

(Namely) those stingy, and get someone else to do miser, and perfected his gift to them. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating torment.

Third, as a pillar of charity together (jama'i) between the rich and the affluent life of a mujahid. Zakat is one of the concrete forms and social security are prescribed by Islam. Through charity law, the lives of poor people, the poor, and people suffering from other, will be properly fulfilled. Zakat is one form of embodiment of Allah's command to always perform mutual help in goodness and piety (QS. Al-Ma'idah: 2).

Fourth, as one source of funds for construction of facilities and infrastructure that must be owned by Muslims, such as places of worship, education, health, social and economic, as well as a means of developing human resources Muslim.

Fifth, to promote business ethics are right, because charity is not a dirty cleaning treasure, but exclude a part of the property rights of others of us that we try to properly and correctly in accordance with the provisions of Allah (QS. Al-Baqarah: 267) ,

Sixth, in terms of the development of the people's welfare, zakat is one instrument of income distribution. With a well-managed charity, it is possible dividing economic growth while equal distribution of income, an economic with equity. Zakat is a cornerstone of economic life and economic equity instrument. "... So that the treasure was not only circulated among the wealthy among you ...."

Seventh, Islam through zakat, donations encouraged the people to be able to work and try to own property in addition to meet the needs of themselves and their families, is also vying to become muzakki and muustahik. Zakat is well managed, will be able to create jobs and extensive effort, as well as control of assets by Muslims.

Pilgrimage (Haji)

Hajj is a religious ritual, visit the House in the month of Zul Hijjah with certain conditions. Hajj compulsory for every Muslim who has ability (power) to do it, as Allah says in Sura. Ali Imran, 3:97.

Every Muslim expected his pilgrimage become accepted (Mabrur), Hajj which is accepted by God and rewarded with a very large reward.

A friend asked the Prophet "What is the most important?". The prophet replied: "Believe in God and His Messenger". The friend asked again: " what else?". The prophet replied: "Jihad in the path of Allah". Companions asked again: "Then what else?". The Apostle replied: "Haji Mabrur".

Haji mabrur a major action are aligned with the faith and jihad. Faith is not something that happens at a time only, but runs continuously. Similarly, jihad should be done continuously throughout life. Haji mabrur was not just after returning from Hajj, but continuously applied in personal and social life after returning to their homeland.

In addition to the special worship explained above there are also public worship, namely all forms of human activities undertaken in connection with the relationship between man and his fellow man and nature that is worth worship. Worship in the sense that both are not prescribed forms and kinds. During the activities performed a Muslim bring benefit for themselves, society and nature on the basis of the intention of God, then that form of worship.

2.2.3. Muamalah

Muamalat is formed from the root word 'charity' which means working among social life. Muamalat implies the involvement of two or more people in a charity (work). Islam as a comprehensive religion as described previously demanded realization of faith in the form of charity (work) either in the form of ritual worship to God, and in relation to our fellow and even to the natural surroundings.

KH. Ali Yafie (1996) explains that humans are involved in worship to God as the embodiment of devotion to Him and was also involved in the interaction with each other to meet the needs of maintenance and preservation of life. Along the lines of such a life, religion gives guidance to men, to realize the concept of greeting in his life, where they will enjoy safety, peace and prosperity. That is the general sense of the word "muamalah" in the phrase addin al muamalah.

Muamalah is human interaction in realizing their respective interests in the association of daily life, such as trade, debt receivables, pawn, lending, leasing, trade and share the results of operations, agricultural irrigation and a wide variety of forms of work (charity) that continue to grow in line with the cultural development of society and the progress of civilization that is sustainable over time and from place to place (Yafie, 1996, 7).

The Scope of Muamalah

Roared the scope of the study muamalah is not tied to certain aspects, it is dynamic of the development trend of positive law. Muhtar Muhammad Yahya was quoted as saying (2007) suggested that the scope of this muamalah law is dynamic. Nevertheless, the legal field of Muamalah is generally divided into family law (ahwal al syakhsiyah), ahkamul al madaniyah (private law), ahkamul jinaiyah (criminal law), ahkamul murafa'at (procedural law), ahkamul dusturiyah (legal legislation), ahkamul dauliyah (international law), and ahkamul iqtishadiyah-law Maliyah economic and financial). The following section describes the scope of the laws muamalah above.

Ahwalus-syakhsiyah (family law) is the law that is closely related to the family from the beginning cultivated. The purpose of the law is to regulate relations marital life, descendants, and relatives of each other.

Ahkamul madaniyah (private law) is the law governing the right of man to one another in the exchange of material and benefits as happened in the buying and selling, transaction, trade unions, leasing, accounts payable and others. This law aims to regulate the material rights of every person, preserve, protect and exploit it.

Ahakmul jinaiyah (criminal law) that the law relating to criminal offenses and sanctions. The purpose of this law is to preserve human life, property, honor, and their rights.

Ahakmul dusturiyah (the laws of) the law that talks about hope and procedures of legislation with the main objective to achieve justice in the society.

Ahkamul dauliyah (International law) is the law that governs the relationship between Islamic countries with other countries (non-Muslims) in terms of peace, security, economic cooperation, social, political and so on as well as set muamalah between moslems and non moslems who are in the territory of Islamic community.

Ahkamul iqtishadiyah-Maliyah (laws of economics and finance) that the law governing the issues of economic and financial issues related to both income and expenditure, the rights of the poor to the wealth and financial problems between the government and communities.

2.2.4. Munakahat (marriage).


In another section of this book has been put forward that men as being civil (social beings) is the nature of God and the will of God. Human nature to live in groups, have a mutual dependence and need other people. Everything  in this world created by each pair, the male paired with female. Humans can live in harmony and peace. Living in harmony and peace in Islam regulates through legal provisions ordinances home life tied by rope wedding / marriage.

Nikah (marriage) is a sacred bond based religion that justifies the association and determine the limits of rights and obligations between a husband with a woman who does not have family relationships (not mahram) (Module, 1987, 50).

Basic Law of Marriage

Munakahat or marriage law is derived from the Qur'an and Sunnah. In the Qur'an many verses that provide a basic foundation of marriage as well as govern the relationship of husband and wife, including Surah an-Nisa: 1

O mankind, fear your Lord who has created you from a single self, and of him. God created wife; and of God He scattered on both men and women that much. and fear Allah, that the (use) his name you ask each other to each other, and (guard) social relationship. Verily Allah always watches over you. In ar Rum: 21,

And among His signs is His is He created for you wives of your kind itself, so you tend to be and feel at ease to him, and made him among you a sense of love and affection. Verily in this is truly there are signs for a people who think.

Marriage is one measure of the perfection of one's religion.

In a history of al-Baihaqi the Prophet stated:

If a person has carried out a marriage, it means he has perfected the half of his religion (because it has been able to maintain his honor), therefore be careful to God in achieving perfection on a part that remains.

The Wisdom of Marriage

Islam encourages people to perform marriages in accordance with the guidance of religion (Islam) can not be separated virtue and benefits contained in it, both for himself, and for human society in general. Sayid Sabiq in his book "Fiqhus-Sunnah" detailing some of the virtues and its benefits.

a. Humans have the most powerful sexual instincts and explosive, which is always urging people to seek and find its distribution so as to avoid the anxiety and grievances, which would take him to the abuses that are not desirable.

b. The way in which human beings to multiply and get a good offspring, as well as the survival of the household who accompanied the assurance of the purity of the origin of a very overlooked by Islam.

c. Motherhood and fatherhood (parental instinct) will grow and become perfect. Mannered and affectionate feelings will blossom and bloom. Without these traits, then human nature would become null and void.

d. Awareness of the responsibilities of marriage and children - fund will encourage the enterprising and diligent effort, and raise personal abilities and talents are hidden.

e. The division of tasks on the one hand according to the circumstances of households, while in the other party in accordance with the circumstances and the outer atmosphere, in addition to determining the responsibilities of the husband and wife were on their work.

Doing Marriage Law

Islam strongly encourages people to do the marriage in order to maintain the honor of self, family, society and religion. Therefore, marriage law mandatory, (sunnah), Forbidden (haram), Hate (makruh) and Allowance (mubah).


Marriage becomes obligatory to be done by people who already have the ability to provide a living inwardly and outwardly to his future wife and have a strong desire to mate and worrying can slip into prohibited by Personality 'such as adultery if not hits.


For someone who has a strong desire to marry and have the ability to execute and take responsibility as a result of his marriage, but in fact he was not worried even if not married he would commit fornication, then marriage law sunna for him.


Marriage becomes unlawful for a person who does not intend either to perform marriages. Similarly, for those who do not have the ability to execute and take responsibility as a result of marriage, which resulted in neglected and troublesome wife.


Makruh's; who was capable in financial, enough to have the ability to keep himself, but he has concerns cannot meet various obligations towards his wife.


Marriage became legal permissible for a person who had a treasure, but if he does not marry does not feel worried about the adultery, and if he did not feel worried and waste obligations towards his wife.

Choosing the terms of Wife

Marriage has the function of such a noble and complex, because it is in choosing a mate as stated by Prophet. The terms in question, namely property, lineage, beauty and religion.

The religious factor is the most dominant factor, because of these factors that will determine the happiness and peace of the household. It is based on the history of Abu Huraira above which shows that among the four factors appointed Messenger of the factor, religion that should be prioritized and united numbers to determine a person's choice of bride.

Choosing husband

Husband and wife is a friend of life, shelter and shelter that can reconcile wife's heart, leadership and responsibility firmly erect a household. The husband is the party that should have advantages of a wife. Therefore function like this then let her husband in choosing candidates considered several provisions as follows:

a. In terms of religion

The religious factor for prospective husband should be a major factor The scholars have agreed that the Islamic Women are not allowed to marry non-Muslim men, both men were a polytheist, such as Christian / Catholic or Jewish.

In the Qur'an it is stated that man slave even if he was a believer is very good and to be selected as candidates for the husband of the man polytheist even if that person is a manly man, nice, charming and more sympathetic (QS. Al-Baqarah verse 221).

b. Kafaah

Kufu means equality, comparable or between husband and wife both from the social level, the degree of morals and manners as well as their belongings. Kafaah factor occupies a very important place for the sake of the household who are freed from feelings of distress among one against another.

A matrimony is not balanced in terms of wealth, such a rich wife, husband being classified as poor, this condition will cause the husband and his family have always overshadowed inferiority (minder), feeling less worthy stand next to his wife and so on. Further result husband did not dare to take various initiatives (initiative) to lead the household he built.

Proposed or Apply (Khitbah)

Women applying for the bride allowed by Personality '(religious law), provided, first, a man may propose marriage Women are not in a state to others, or not in keadaan'iddah.

Women are forbidden to woo someone married, because it will bring a divorce, chaos and hostility in a society that is avoided by religion. Likewise forbidden to woo women in 'iddah raj'i talaq, talaq raj'i because it implies that he still can ruju '(back) as long as 'iddah.

Secondly, it is not allowed to apply or propose to the death of a husband or a woman to woo women who talaq ba'in (talaq three) openly. He can only be justified if the suitor using words or phrases disguised satire (QS. al-Baqarah: 235).

Third, when allowed to see women proposed and see the face and the palms of his hands.

Third, not allowed (prohibited) to woo women in, the proposal of other men, with the exception if the proposal has been rejected by the woman, or has been allowed by the man in question.

Marriage ceremony is a marriage bond or agreement between the parties or their representatives guardian of the bride with the groom or his representative in the presence of two witnesses in the form of consent from the guardian of women and qabul, namely speech stating his willingness and consent of the male , With these limits, then some of the pillars of marriage must be fulfilled, namely: 1) there is a guardian of the bride, 2) there is a potential husband, 3) there is a future wife, 4) there are two witnesses, 5) no consent sighat qabul

Guardian (Wali) in Marriage

Guardian or a person with intercession affairs can be carried out by another person in lieu of him has a crucial role determining the validity of a marriage. Aisha explained that prophet of Allah said:

Anyone among women who married without the permission of her guardian, then her marriage null, null and illegitimate, illegitimate canceled. If her husband had sex intercourse, then he is entitled to her dowry, because he has permitted his honor. If trustees are reluctant to marry, then judge can be a trustee acting for someone who no guardian ".

Some requirements are met for someone who portray themselves as guardians, namely: 1) Islam, 2) puberty or adulthood, 3) sensible, 4) independent, and 5) men.

Sequence of guardian in marriage

The sequence of the natural guardian of marriage are as follows:

Dad; Grand father ; The brother of the same mother same father ; The brother of the same father;  Boys from number 3;  Boys from number 4;  The brother of number 1; The brother of number 2; Boys from number 7; Judge

Wali Mujbir

Mujbir guardian is guardian to compel (ijbar) against the girl in the ward to be mated with the male without the permission of the girl in question, while the child or grandchild who has been widowed trustee has no right ijbar. Guardian who has the right to force is simply made up of a father and grandfather (father and so on upwards). As for the trustee mujbir can marry the girl in the ward must fulfill the following requirements:

1. Men option guardian must kufu (balanced) with a girl who are marriage.

2. Between guardian mujbir and girls are concerned there is no hostility

3. Between the girls and boys prospective husband there is no hostility

4. Candidates must be able to pay the dowry the husband with cash

5. Men option mujbir guardian will be able to meet duties to their wives well.

Wali Hakim

Nasab guardianship or relatives moved to the guardian judge, could be individuals or institutions, such as the head of (KUA) if no guardian nasab, guardian nasab traveling far or not in place, but do not give power to the trustee closer is in place, such as providing power to his brother or sister, guardian nasab lose the right ward, like his father Christian, nasab guardian refuses to act as a guardian, trustee nasab be bridegroom of women in their ward. Like a-man should be his guardian, but the woman who marries is his own cousin

Wali Muhakam

In such a state, when the guardian nasab cannot act as a trustee because it does not qualify, such as a Christian or a Hindu, or refusing as a guardian, but the judge trustee cannot act as a substitute trustee nasab he was not given the power, then to qualify the validity of the marriage the bride can appoint someone to be his guardian. Trustee appointed by the bride is called a guardian of muhakkam.


Dowry is a gift given by the bridegroom to the bride's son due to the occurrence of matrimony. Dowry or dowry was usually mentioned in conjunction with the marriage ceremony, such as qabul phrase: "Have I thank her marriage with dowry in the form of manuscripts from Quran with cash".

The mention of dowry in sighat qabul consent is not a provision that became one of the pillars of marriage. Until he could be mentioned or not mentioned at the time the bride's son say qabul, but hand it can be instantaneous or paid in future times. Islam guides  that dowry made lightly, not burdensome for the son. Dowry or dowry does not always have tangible material. It can be a service or benefit that can be felt by his wife, a kind of teaching reading of the Quran, the husband's willingness to embrace Islam, or do a particular job.

The breakdown in the marriage bond

Biodegrade or breaking of the bond of marriage is caused by several factors, namely:


When one of the couple dies, then by itself there was a divorce. If the husband dies, the wife may remarry with another man after the expiration of the 'iddah. The waiting period for the wife who left her husband died when she was in a state of pregnancy, then the period of 'iddah until the baby is born. Being that in ordinary circumstances period ('iddah) 4 months 10 days (QS. At-Thalaq: 4, QS al-Baqarah: 234).

Talak or divorce

Talak or divorce, the husband divorces his wife to the marriage bond between them unbroken. Separations in normal circumstances is justified God, but at the same time is an act of very hated.

Islam outlines the rules of divorce do not others to overcome a state (condition) that occurred in the household who are not harmonious and very critical. In a crisis situation of this kind husband is empowered to divorce his wife. Separations can fall and cause divorce when declared by the husband, either in the form of word or phrase or sentence that clearly satire, with spoken or written language, with deliberate or just banter or joking.

In the latter case the Prophet stated "problem banter or joking in marital problems can result in divorce essentially an educational one that someone will not underestimate the problems of divorce, because it is very fatal consequences and worrying".

Separations were viewed in terms of its type, there are three, namely:

Separations Raja'i, the husband may divorce his wife returned to the former without doing a new marriage, during the prescribed period, such as divorce first and second divorce.

Separations (talak) ba'in. Talak is further divided into two types, namely ba'in Sughra, namely that divorce cannot be referred back except with a new marriage contract hold, such as divorces with 'iwad or divorce to wife who has not clocked. Separations ba'in kubra, that triple divorce, divorce cannot be back or 'return except his ex-wife married previously with other men, and a marriage that has gone well, meaning that the husband has sex intercourse  as befits the wife married, then divorced and was discharged the period of 'iddah.


Khul'a means divorce requested by the wife to her husband by giving 'iwadl or ransom because it is caused by some certain things. The factors that can be used as a reason for asking for divorce redeem wife (khul'a) such hatred toward her husband's wife, because her husband had a adulterers, drunkards, gamblers, robbers, killers etc.

Thus khul'a can be done if it's between husband and wife is not no rapprochement of life, and the initiative is precisely the advent of hand the wife, not the husband (QS. Al-Baqarah: 229).


The reasons for divorce caused different fasakh the grounds for divorce because khul'a. Fasakh may be filed by the woman or wife to the religious court accompanied by evidence that is strong enough because for several reasons, such as handicapped husband had an acute form of the disease, like mad, leprosy, genital pain, and impotence, unknown (away) husband after awaited for four years, a husband who did not meet the stated words before mating as claimed in the civil service, pilots, doctors and so on, but the reality is not like that.

Syiqaq (dispute)

Syiqaq means a dispute between husband and wife that cannot be reconciled, not willing that either the husband or of the wife. Disputes between husband and wife which resulted in disruption of their relationship as an association that is kindness, being one of the parties does not want, and there are also reasons that could lead to the level khul'a or fasakh, then if it is then filed a religious court judges will judge appoint two judges from each wife and husband, with the task to reconcile (QS, an-Nisa ': 35).


Zhihar is greeting a husband who thinks or equate her with the back of his mother, or wife equate with such a mother, as the words: "You look exactly like my mother's face", or "your body makes no difference at all to the body of my mother", or "your back similar to my mother's back ".

Saying things like this in the religion of Islam is denounced and it is forbidden because it could result in a picture that is nonsensical. Even with the attitude of the face or the back or the body of his wife with her mother would arise in such an impression when he was with his wife who is in the shadow instead of dealing with his own wife, but that is pictured in front of him was his own mother, a shadow or a profound impression once condemned by God (Al-Mujadilah: 2).

For someone who already say the word as it was intended with these zhihar, and not followed by dropping divorce, then it is obligatory for him to pay Kifarat as designated in surah Al¬Mujadilah 3-4, freed slaves, otherwise unenforceable then, fasting two months respectively, when no power then, feed sixty poor people, who each person as much as 6-7 ounces.

L i 'a n (curse)

When a husband accuses his wife of adultery, while the allegations are not supported by a witness that is strong enough and fair enough then to him must be racked with 80 blows. This is stated in the letter an-Nur 4.

Husband affected by the threat of punishment of eighty times flagellation similar result was his wife accused may escape punishment when he take the oath with asthma God that the accusation is true. Such oath is repeated up to four times, and then forwarded to the fifth oath that the curse of Allah will contain befall him if the allegations are not true (a lie) (QS, an-Nur: 6-7).

The wife of a husband's adultery is exposed allegations reinforced by oath as mentioned above will result in penalties such as flogging one hundred times as described in the letter an-Nur ; 2.

Husband  who can avoid penalties accused of adultery without witnesses to the oath, ma, the wife ka can also refrain from whipping punishment for adultery by way of swearing. Oath in Allah's name was mentioned that her husband's accusations are lies, such as: "Wallahi or by God that my husband allegations accusing myself having sex with someone is really a lie", which is pronounced to four times. Then, for the fifth time the oath was stated that the curse or curse of Allah will befall him if the allegations of her husband's true, as the phrase: "By Allah, may Allah curse and happen to me if my husband's accusation is true". Similar provisions is also described Surah An-Nur ; 8-9.


The original meaning of 'iddah is number, ie a certain period that must be awaited by women who divorced or abandoned by her husband, both abandoned because of divorce or divorce living dead. Divorced women were sometimes being in a state of pregnancy, and some are not in a state of pregnancy.

Pregnant women who divorced good as a result of the husband's death or by divorce life then 'iddah until the child is born (QS. At-Thalaq: 4).

If the woman still has time-haidl then 'iddah three quru' or thrice holy (QS. Al-Baqarah: 228). Women who divorced before clocked by her husband though, so he does not have a waiting period at all (QS. Al-Ahzab verse 49). But if the woman was not pregnant because widowed divorced her husband, then the future 'iddah is 4 months 10 days (QS. Al-Baqarah: 234). For the woman who left her husband dead even though her husband had never been clocked, but in honor of her late husband, then her 'iddah must wait for four months and ten days (QS. Al-Baqarah: 234), "the people who died between you , while they were leaving some of his wife (widow), let the wives were 'iddah four (4) months and ten days ".


4.2.4. Morals, Ethics and Akhlak


The third sphere of Islamic teachings is morality. Morals are a reflection of real action or execution of faith and the Shari'a. The word character in a language is the plural of the word khulukun means: character, temperament, customs, behavior or the behavior of the system are made. While the terminology morality is the science of determining the boundary between good and evil, between the best and reprehensible whether it be words or deeds of human inner and outer.

Morals means the character or temperament. In Islamic literature, morals mean: (1) knowledge that explains the meaning of good and bad, the purpose of the act, as well as guidelines to be followed (Amin, 1975: 3); (2) knowledge that investigates the human life journey as a parameter deeds, words and happenings of life; (3) the permanence in the one who gave birth to works easily without the need for process thinking (Al Ghazali: 52); (4) a set of values ​​that guide behavior and do.

Morals have arable area related to human behavior in terms of good and bad, as well as ethical and moral. Morality is a set of religious values ​​that should be realized in everyday life and is taken for granted, ready-made and sourced from Divine revelation.

Ethics, according Bertens (1997, 6) associated with the values ​​and moral norms as the basis for behaving or also called by the code of conduct. This ethic has a broader scope than moral. Ethics, according to Frans Magnis Suseno (1992, 31) means the science of morals (Suseno, 1992, 31 and Djatnika, 1992: 26).

Moral comes from the Latin "mores" the plural of the word "mos, which means custom, morality is customary in this case is a human act in accordance with the general ideas accepted by the community, which is good and reasonable ( Madjid, 1996). So it could be said to be morally appropriate behavior with measurements commonly accepted measures by covering certain social or environmental unity.

Although these three words have a meaning that is relatively the same, but the character has a broad scope and general meaning derived from the teachings of Divine revelation and the Prophet and are universal, while others terms (ethics and morals) was born from the results if the thought of man as both born of human intelligence, so that both of them are static, temporal and dynamic.

The scope of the above have integrative relationships, linkages to each other. Aqidah is closely related to Shari'ah and morals. Aqidah is a statement that shows a person's faith, Shari'ah is the path traversed by someone to lead to the implementation of theology, while the empirical character is a reflection of externalizing inner qualities (faith) of someone in various aspects of life.

The scope of the above teachings of Islam is an integral and inseparable, which form a complete personality in a person Muslims. Islam referred to a comprehensive religion which provides opportunities for individual to embrace kaffah (intact). This is one of the essential core of saying of Allah in the Qur'an (Surah, Al-Baqarah: 208).

O ye who believe, you go into Islam whole, and do you share the steps of Satan. Verily Satan is an outright enemy to you.

The verse above, in addition to calling for those who believe (faith) in God to have the attitude and commitment as well as spiritual and physical integrity in worship to God also shows the importance of the characteristics of Islamic morality.

The characteristics of the Islamic Morals

Morals as one of the important aspects of Islam have important characteristics as follows:

1. Teach and guide people to good behavior and keep away from bad behavior.

2. Being a moral source, the size of one's good and bad deeds are based on the Quran and al-Hadits.

3. Characteristically universal and comprehensive, acceptable and used as guidelines by the entire human race whenever and wherever they are.

4. Organize and direct the human nature to noble morals and straighten human actions as an attempt to humanize humans (Jacob, 1996: 11).

Scope of Morals

As well as worship and muamalah, morality in Islam also has the scope, namely akhlak man to God, men with fellows human character and morals of men to the environment.

Akhlaq to God

a. Worshipping God

Man's relationship with God is manifested in the form of spirituality of worship, such as prayer, fasting, zakat and Hajj. Worship should be done with the intention solely because of God, not God good to double in the liver, through words and deeds.

b. Love God above Everything

God loves exceed his love for anything and anyone with roads carry away all the commandments and prohibitions, expect Allah's approval, grateful for the blessings and grace, accept willingly all qadha and Divine Qadar after seek, ask for help, begging for mercy, sole trust, and surrender only to God is one form of loving God.

c. Dzikir to God

Considering God in a variety of situations, airy, narrow, happy, hard is one form of human morality in God. Morals in the form of dhikr is recommended Allah Allah in His book. God told the people who believe in Him with as much dzikir- even with men will find rest (QS. Ar Ra'ad: 30).

d. Pray, Tawaddu 'and resignation

Pray or ask God in accordance with the intent to be done in the best way possible, full of confidence that will be granted by God. Human pray recommended to be of humility to God, kneeling admit weakness and pleading for help and protection with great anticipation.

In addition to human prayer are encouraged to make every effort possible so that his business can be achieved. If the effort and prayer have been carried out to the maximum, then the next human task is handed the results to God, commonly called by his resignation, the surrender completely to God regardless of the outcome of his efforts. He realized that everything belongs to God and in whom back everything (QS. Ar Ra'du: 123).

Akhlaq to creatures

a. The morality of the Prophet.

Sincerely love the Prophet by following all the Sunnah. Making it an idol, a role model in life. Doing what he was told and left everything he forbids anything.

b. Akhlaq to parents.

Love them exceeds his love for other relatives. Grovel accompanied with genuine affection. Communicating with the wisdom, with gentle words. Pray for them to salvation and forgiveness even though they had died.

c. Akhlaq to yourself.

Maintaining personal purity, close the genitals, fair, honest in word and deed, sincere, patient, forgiving, humble, and stay away from the nature of envy and resentment.

d. The morality of the family, a close relative.

Foster mutual love and affection, love and hate for Allah.

e. Akhlaq to neighbor;

Visiting each other, helping good times and hard, and mutual respect.

f.  Morality on society;

Glorifying guests, respecting the values ​​and norms, comply with the decision / regulations that have been taken, consulted in all matters of common interest.

g. Akhlaq to the environment.

Maintaining environmental sustainability, harnessing and maintaining, especially animal, vegetable, fauna and flora, all of which were created by God for the benefit of human and other creature.

Islam as a universal religion teaches ordinances of worship and interaction not only with God and fellow human beings, but also with the surrounding natural environment. The relationship is in line with the mission of the religion of Islam, known as rahmatan lil 'alamin. It is also a prophetic mission coming of the Prophet Muhammad as Allah said in Surah al-Anbiya ': 107.

Islam as a religion of mercy for all nature can only be realized if people are consciously aware of, understand and carry out his mission as God's caliph who served for prosperity of the earth and everything in it, to establish good relations with fellow human beings and with God (vertical and horizontal relationship).

Muhammad (2007) asserted explicitly that human character of nature manifested in the form of excessively exploiting nature not only for economic ambition and desire. God explicitly warned to humans so as not mischief on the earth (la tufsidu fil ardhi), because the essence that do damage to nature also means doing damage to themselves and the public at large (Al-A'raaf [7]: 56 ).

As a caliph in the earth, humans are allowed to enjoy what is on earth, but not to exploit excessively exceed the necessities of life (Surah Al-Mulk (67:15) and the letter Ash-Syuura (42: 42). Instead, it a glory if people preserve nature for the benefit of others. In a his saying of the Prophet said:

It is not a Muslim who plants a tree or plant crops which are then (results) eaten by birds, humans or animals, but it becomes alms for growers. "(Bukhari).

It can simply be understood that the real man has no right to exploit nature excessively exceed the basic needs. This is because the nature and any creatures in it is also the people (servants of God) as well as humans (see Surah Al-An'am: 38).




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